Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 is an Umbrella legislation. Define ‘ Environment’ and ‘Environmental Pollution’ under the Act.


 Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 is an Umbrella legislation. Define ‘ Environment’ and ‘Environmental Pollution’ under the Act.

 Environment- The word Environment may be defined as “the physicobiological word that we live in”. The Human Environment includes building, plants, climate and the land itself. The term ‘Environment’ is defined under Section 2(a) of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 as follows-
The words Environment means water, air and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water, air and land, and human being, others living creatures, plants, micro organism and property.
The Act is intended to take appropriate steps for the protection and improvement of human environment and to prevent hazard to human being, others living creatures plants and property. It consider as well, the decline in the Environment Quality which has been evidenced by the increasing pollution, loss of vegetal cover and biological diversity, excessive concentration and in food chains, growing risks of environmental accident and threats to life support system.
The existing law deals with several environmental matters either directly or indirectly. These existing law generally deals with specific types of pollution or on specific categories of hazardous substances. Thus it is intended to have a general legislation for environment protection. Hence the Parliament has enacted the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Scope of the Definition: Under Section 2(a) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 the Act has given a wide meaning to the term ‘Environment’. Industrial pollution has been disturbing the ecological balance. Industrial effluents, flames and fumes have polluted the air. Thus the industrial society progressing  by leaps and bond to material wealth has hurt the environment. It is almost to a point of no return. In the above circumstances, if life on our planet has to its pristine purity. Further to prevent and control water pollution for human existence the Parliament has passed the water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act 1974. The Act imposes a duty on every person to take steps to prevent or mitigate the environment pollution.

Environmental Pollution: A Central Act was enacted in the year 1986 to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and for matter connected therewith. Section 2 (c) of the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 define the term ‘Environmental Pollution’ as follows:
‘Environmental Pollution’ means the presence in environment of any Environmental Pollution.
Thus to understand the concept, we must read definition of environment and environmental pollution together, as defined under the above Act.
According to Section 2(a) of the Act, the term Environment includes water, air, land and human beings, others living creatures, plants, micro-organism and property.
According to Section 2(b) ‘Environmental Pollution’ means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance prevent in such concentration as may be, or tend to be, injurious to Environment.
Thus, in regard to the worldwide pollution the following ten kinds of pollutions are regarded as the major polllutants;
Carbon-dioxide;
D.D.T;
Lead;
Carbon monoxide;
Sulphur dioxide;
Oil;
Oxide of nitrogen;
Radiation;
Mercury and
Phosphate.

Effects of Pollution: There are different types of pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, noise pollution and radio-active pollution. Any kind of pollution ultimately, causes damages to the natural composition of substance in the natural Environment and creates troubles for the survivals of the living beings and also their properties. Pollution generally interferes with the foods chain, carbon cycles, oxygen cycles, hydrogen cycles and nitrogen cycles and causes damages to animals, plants and other living beings and their environment.


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